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책 읽기와 배경 지식 (1) - Quizzes for A People's History of the United States

아래의 퀴즈는 학생들이 Howard Zinn 교수님의 A People’s History of the United States (New York: Harper Collins)를 읽어나가는데 도움이 되도록 저 개인적으로 만든 것입니다. 미국 역사를 처음 공부하는 학생들은 먼저 책의 한 장(chapter)을 다 읽고 퀴즈를 푸는 것이 좋고, 미국 역사를 공부한 적이 있는 학생들은 퀴즈를 먼저 읽으면서 각 장에 어떤 내용이 나올까를 생각한 다음 책을 읽는 것이 좋습니다. 물론 반대로 해도 괜찮습니다.

중요한 것은 어느 쪽을 선택하든 책을 읽어야 한다는 점입니다. 아무쪼록 이 글을 읽는 학생들 모두가 전세계적으로 200만권 이상 팔린 초대형 베스트셀러를 읽고, 영어 실력의 향상과 더불어 넓고 깊게 사태를 관찰하고 숙고하는 법을 배우기 바랍니다.

Quizzes for A People’s History of the United States


Chapter 1 Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress

  1. Why did Columbus think of the place where he arrived as the Indies?

  2. Why did the contemporary Europeans of Columbus have to give up the relatively convenient land route and seek for the alternative sea route?

  3. Explain the reason Columbus came to the land later known as America and the method he would finance his expeditions to America.

  4. We could get a lot of information about what happened on the islands of the West Indies after Columbus came. Explain this chief source as much as you know, including the author and the name of the book.

  5. In describing the past events, all historians could distort the past to some extent like the cartographer who must transfer the spherical surface of the globe to the flat map. Explain the possible means of the distortion historians sometimes can’t avoid and their risks, especially in the case of Samuel Eliot Morison’s Christopher Columbus.

  6. Explain what Hernando Cortés did to the Aztecs of Mexico and Pizarro to the Incas of Peru.

  7. Explain what the English settlers of Virginia and Massachusetts did to the Powhatans and the Pequots.

  8. Explain the most impressive feature of the Native American culture.

  9. What do you think means the so-called “human progress”?

  10. Translate the following English passage into Korean or other languages.

    In that first year of the white man in Virginia, 1607, Powhatan had addressed a plea to John Smith that turned out prophetic. How authentic it is may be in doubt, but it is so much like so many Indian statements that it may be taken as, if not the rough letter of that first plea, the exact spirit of it.
    


Chapter 2 Drawing the Color Line

  1. When did the first black slaves arrive at North America?

  2. Explain the three reasons the first white settlers desperately needed the enslavement of blacks.

  3. Explain the slavery in the African states.

  4. Enumerate the nations which dominated the slave trade in chronological order. And explain why they were engaged in the immoral business.

  5. Explain the impact the slave trade has had on Africa and your explanation must be based on the specific statistics. This impact has been neglected by many western intellectuals including Howard Zinn himself.

  6. Many human societies have developed various kinds of racism through the unequal treatment and the combination of contempt and oppression, but racism is not just the result of a natural antipathy between human groups. Explain the development process of racism in America, including who and why.

  7. Explain the ways the black men and women resisted their enslavement.

  8. Although the slave rebellions didn’t take place in North America as often as in South America, white planters felt constant fear of them. Explain their clever policy to get rid of the fear.

  9. Translate the following English passage into Korean or other languages.
    Sails furled, flag drooping at her rounded stern, she rode the tide in from the sea. She was a strange ship, indeed, by all accounts, a frightening ship, a ship of mystery. Whether she was trader, privateer, or man-of-war no one knows. Through her bulwarks black-mouthed cannon yawned. The flag she flew was Dutch; her crew a motley. Her port of call was an English settlement, Jamestown, in the colony of Virginia. She came, she traded, and shortly afterwards was gone. Probably no ship in modern history has carried a more portentous freight. Her cargo? Twenty slaves.
    
  10. Translate the following English passage into Korean or other languages.
    Once the small planter felt less exploited by taxation and began to prosper a little, he became less turbulent, less dangerous, more respectable. He could begin to see his big neighbor not as an extortionist but as a powerful protector of their common interests.
    


Chapter 3 Persons of Mean and Vile Condition

  1. Many of the students in the class have asked me to question on Bacon’s Rebellion. Explain the rebellion including the cause and the effect.

  2. Who became the white indentured servants and why?

  3. What happened to the white indentured servants after they were out of their indentures?

  4. Who wrote the Fundamental Constitutions in the Carolinas? And describe the social structure set up on his political philosophy.

  5. Even though, in the 1700s, the American colonies grew fast, the resulting class conflict between the two social groups became harsher and harsher. Describe the situation in detail.

  6. By the end of the 1700s, the wealthy elite of the American colonies had accumulated 150 years of experience about how to rule. Even if they were confronting a variety of challenges, they also had designed remarkable plots to handle what they feared. Depict their fears and their tactics to overcome their problems.

  7. In this chapter, you must have found the misprinted word. Pick up the word and correct it.

  8. Translate the following English passage into Korean or other languages.

    Around the same time, in New York, an election pamphlet urged New York voters to join “Shuttle” the weaver, “Plane” the joiner, “Drive” the carter, “Mortar” the mason, “Tar” the mariner, “Snip” the tailor, “Smallrent” the fair-minded landlord, and “John Poor” the tenant, against “Gripe the Merchant, Squeeze the Shopkeeper, Spintext and Quible the Lawyer.” The electorate was urged to vote out of office “people in Exalted Stations” who scorned “those they call the Vulgar, the Mob, the herd of Mechanicks.”
    


Chapter 4 Tyranny is tyranny

  1. Describe the aftermath of the English victory over France in the Seven Years’ War or the French and Indian War in 1763.

  2. After the Stamp Act of 1765, why did the mob action in Boston explode?

  3. For what was the Regulator movement in the 1760s organized?

  4. The leaders of the Revolutionary movement could win over the city mechanics and the lowest classes whose economic grievances mixed up with fury against the British and exploded in mob violence. However, they became concerned about all their instigation of crowd action. What was the main cause of their fear?

  5. Explain a series of frictions between the British government and the American colonists from the impressment and quartering by the British troops, through the Boston Massacre, to the Boston Tea Party.

  6. Describe the contribution of Patrick Henry and Tom Paine to the American Revolution and pinpoint their ideological bias at the same time.

  7. When did the Continental Congress decide on separation and adopt the Declaration of Independence?

  8. The Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson has offered the basic philosophy for all the later democratic political systems. However, despite all the achievements of this great verbal contract, it has two of the significant drawbacks. Pinpoint the limitations of the Declaration of Independence.

  9. Translate the following English passage into Korean or other languages.

    When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands … they should declare the causes. … We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government. … a history repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States.
    


Chapter 5 A kind of Revolution

  1. Describe the situation of the American colonies just before the Revolution and how the Revolutionary leaders cope with it.

  2. Explain how the Americans won the final victory of the war.

  3. What were the grievances of the middling and poor soldiers of the Revolutionary army? And how did George Washington deal with the mutineers?

  4. The confiscation of land from fleeing Loyalists gave a double opportunity to the Revolutionary leaders. Describe the process of how they could create a huge support group for the newly established republic.

  5. What did the Revolution mean to the Native Americans?

  6. What did the Revolution mean to the black slaves?

  7. Describe the common cause of a series of rebellions led by Luke Day, Job Shattuck, and Daniel Shays in the 1780s.

  8. Who drew up the Constitution of the United States and where?

  9. Describe the two political parties, the Democrat-Republicans and the Federalists, at the time that the first American government was established.

  10. Who supported eagerly the newly proclaimed American Constitution? And explain how the support was organized in relation to the historical meaning of the broad base of support.

  11. Translate the following English passage into Korean or other languages.

    The Constitution became even more acceptable to the public at large after the first Congress, responding to criticism, passed a series of amendments known as the Bill of Rights. These amendments seemed to make the new government a guardian of people’s liberties: to speak, to publish, to worship, to petition, to assemble, to be tried fairly, to be secure at home against official intrusion. It was, therefore, perfectly designed to build popular backing for the government. What was not made clear – it was a time when the language of freedom was new and its reality untested – was the shakiness of anyone’s liberty when entrusted to a government of the rich and powerful.
    


Chapter 6 The Intimately Oppressed

  1. Not all societies have treated women as inferiors. Why have some societies relatively more oppressed them than others? Compare the early white American society to earlier societies in America and elsewhere.

  2. Describe the life of Anne Hutchinson.

  3. Describe the “Coffee Party.”

  4. The very first ideas of female equality were in the air during and after the Revolution, and many of the social changes from then to the Civil War in America made the changes take place in the situation of women. Explain a series of changes in detail.

  5. Which job became to be monopolized by middle-class women between 1780 and 1840? And how did they use the job to promote feminism?

  6. Explain the following women’s achievements in their respective fields.
    (1) Emma Willard
    (2) Harriot Hunt
    (3) Elizabeth Blackwell
    (4) Lucy Stone
    (5) Amelia Bloomer
    (6) Margaret Fuller
    (7) Sarah Grimké
    (8) Angelina Grimké
    (9) Dorothea Dix
    (10) Frances Wright
    (11) Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott

  7. Explain the Declaration of Principles.

  8. Translate the following English passage into Korean or other languages.

    While we acknowledge our mutual affection by publicly assuming the relationship of husband and wife … we deem it a duty to declare that this act on our part implies no sanction of, nor promise of voluntary obedience to such of the present laws of marriage as refuse to recognize the wife as an independent, rational being, while they confer upon the husband an injurious and unnatural superiority.
    


Chapter 7 As Long as Grass Grows or Water Runs

  1. Describe Thomas Jefferson’s scheme for Indian Removal.

  2. Where did the Creeks live? You could find the correct answer, if you recalled where Andrew Jackson fought in 1814. There also lived the Choctaws, Chickasaws and Cherokees.

  3. Describe the moving passage and the activities of Andrew Jackson after his close victory over the Creeks with the help of the Cherokees until he became the President of the United States.

  4. Which Indian tribes lived in the North under the governments of Andrew Jackson and his successor Martin van Buren? And describe the removal process.

  5. Do you know the legendary characters like Davy Crockett and Sam Houston appearing so many times in American folklore? Maybe you also know the other characters such as Paul Bunyan, because you have learned about some American folktales. Explain the setting where these frontier figures came out.

  6. Fill the blank with the correct answer.
    The Choctaws and Chickasaws had quickly agreed to migrate. The Creeks were stubborn and had to be forced. The Cherokees were practicing a nonviolent resistance. One tribe – ____________ – decided to fight.
    
  7. Describe the tactics the American government employed in order to deprive Indians of the land east of Mississippi.

  8. What do you think was the most heart-breaking event when you read this chapter? Describe the event and why.

  9. Translate the following English passage into Korean or other languages.
    The soul of man, the justice, the mercy that is the heart’s heart in all men, from Maine to Georgia, does abhor this business… a crime is projected that confounds our understandings by its magnitude, a crime that really deprives us as well as the Cherokees of a country for how could we call the conspiracy that should crush these poor Indians our government, or the land that was cursed by their parting and dying imprecations our country any more? You, sir, will bring down that renowned chair in which you sit into infamy if your seal is set to this instrument of perfidy; and the name of this nation, hitherto the sweet omen of religion and liberty, will stink to the world.
    


Chapter 8 We Take Nothing by Conquest, Thank God

  1. Describe the main cause of the war between the United States and Mexico, answering the following questions. Who was in the White House at that time and what was the ultimate goal of the then US President? And what was the plot he planned to accomplish the purpose?

  2. Explain Abraham Lincoln’s “spot resolutions” and his position expressed in the support speech for General Zachary Taylor as a Presidential Candidate in the House on July 27, 1848.

  3. Why did a few of antislavery Congressmen vote against all war measures? And depict the Whigs’ position in relation to the title of this chapter.

  4. Why was Henry David Thoreau put in jail and how was he released?

  5. Why did many organized workingmen oppose the war?

  6. Describe the social structure of Mexico at that time.

  7. How did the US government recruit the soldiers of the army, when the support for the war was not so high? And who became the privates and why?

  8. The so-called Mexican War is sometimes considered a war of the American elite against the Mexican elite. Do you agree or disagree on it and why?

  9. Describe the results of the Mexican War.

  10. Translate the following English passage into Korean or other languages.

    It is not desirable to cultivate a respect for the law, so much as for the right. … Law never made men a whit more just; and by means of their respect for it, even the well-disposed are daily made the agents of injustice. A common and natural result of an undue respect for law is, that you may see a file of soldiers … marching in admirable order over hill and dale to the wars, against their wills, ay, against their common sense and consciences, which makes it very steep marching indeed, and produces a palpitation of the heart.